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64242
unstar this property registered interest false more like this
star this property date less than 2014-06-26more like thismore than 2014-06-26
star this property answering body
Department of Health more like this
star this property answering dept id 17 more like this
star this property answering dept short name Health more like this
star this property answering dept sort name Health more like this
unstar this property hansard heading In Vitro Fertilisation remove filter
star this property house id 2 more like this
star this property legislature
25277
star this property pref label House of Lords more like this
star this property question text To ask Her Majesty's Government what assessment they have made of the safety of embryos created using the DNA of three individuals. more like this
star this property tabling member printed
Lord Alton of Liverpool more like this
star this property uin HL644 more like this
star this property answer
answer
unstar this property is ministerial correction false more like this
star this property date of answer less than 2014-07-09more like thismore than 2014-07-09
star this property answer text <p>An expert panel, convened by the Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority, has conducted three reviews of the safety and efficacy of methods to avoid mitochondrial disease through assisted conception. The reports of the reviews were published in April 2011, March 2013 and, most recently, on 3 June 2014.</p><p> </p><p>All three reviews have found no evidence to suggest any of the techniques evaluated are unsafe. In its most recent report, the expert panel recommended that additional experiments should be completed before the techniques were used in clinical practice. The Government is considering the report and will announce its plans as soon as possible.</p> more like this
star this property answering member printed Earl Howe more like this
star this property question first answered
less than 2014-07-09T15:13:31.4586711Zmore like thismore than 2014-07-09T15:13:31.4586711Z
star this property answering member
2000
star this property label Biography information for Earl Howe more like this
star this property tabling member
738
unstar this property label Biography information for Lord Alton of Liverpool more like this
65817
unstar this property registered interest false more like this
star this property date less than 2014-07-03more like thismore than 2014-07-03
star this property answering body
Department of Health more like this
star this property answering dept id 17 more like this
star this property answering dept short name Health more like this
star this property answering dept sort name Health more like this
unstar this property hansard heading In Vitro Fertilisation remove filter
star this property house id 2 more like this
star this property legislature
25277
star this property pref label House of Lords more like this
star this property question text To ask Her Majesty's Government, further to the Written Answer by Viscount Younger of Leckie on 28 January 2013 (WA 269), what conclusions were reached by the Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority's small panel regarding assessment of the effects of pronuclear transfer on tissues with different energetic requirements or numbers of mitochondria; whether it was ultimately evaluated using stem cell lines from the reconstructed embryos or by induced pluripotent stem cells; whether the relevant findings were published in peer-reviewed journals; and, if so, which. more like this
star this property tabling member printed
Lord Alton of Liverpool more like this
star this property uin HL809 more like this
star this property answer
answer
unstar this property is ministerial correction false more like this
star this property date of answer less than 2014-07-17more like thismore than 2014-07-17
star this property answer text <p>The Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority (HFEA) has advised that the conclusions reached by the Expert Panel on this issue are outlined in its reports of April 2011, March 2013 and June 2014, which can be found on the HFEA's website at:</p><p> </p><p>www.hfea.gov.uk/6896.html</p><p> </p><p>Section 4.9 of the 2014 report outlines the panel's recommendation for research in this area and Annex B details the evidence reviewed. This can be found on the HFEA's website at:</p><p> </p><p><a href="http://www.hfea.gov.uk/8807.html" target="_blank">www.hfea.gov.uk/8807.html</a></p><p> </p> more like this
star this property answering member printed Earl Howe more like this
star this property question first answered
less than 2014-07-17T11:47:12.9445892Zmore like thismore than 2014-07-17T11:47:12.9445892Z
star this property answering member
2000
star this property label Biography information for Earl Howe more like this
star this property tabling member
738
unstar this property label Biography information for Lord Alton of Liverpool more like this
77277
unstar this property registered interest false more like this
star this property date less than 2014-07-10more like thismore than 2014-07-10
star this property answering body
Department of Health more like this
star this property answering dept id 17 more like this
star this property answering dept short name Health more like this
star this property answering dept sort name Health more like this
unstar this property hansard heading In Vitro Fertilisation remove filter
star this property house id 2 more like this
star this property legislature
25277
star this property pref label House of Lords more like this
star this property question text To ask Her Majesty’s Government, further to the Written Answer by Earl Howe on 9 July (WA 49), whether they consider that the inability of three reviews to find evidence to suggest any of the techniques evaluated are unsafe constitutes evidence that such techniques are safe; and if so, what is the purpose of the recommended experiments that should be completed before the techniques could be used in clinical practice. more like this
star this property tabling member printed
Lord Alton of Liverpool more like this
star this property uin HL1011 more like this
star this property answer
answer
unstar this property is ministerial correction false more like this
star this property date of answer less than 2014-07-24more like thismore than 2014-07-24
star this property answer text <p>All three reviews have found no evidence to suggest any of the techniques evaluated are unsafe.</p><p> </p><p>The experiments recommended by the Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority convened Expert Panel’s June 2014 report are designed to contribute towards the decision as to when mitochondrial donation should be offered in treatment.</p> more like this
star this property answering member printed Earl Howe more like this
star this property question first answered
less than 2014-07-24T14:29:24.8385026Zmore like thismore than 2014-07-24T14:29:24.8385026Z
star this property answering member
2000
star this property label Biography information for Earl Howe more like this
star this property tabling member
738
unstar this property label Biography information for Lord Alton of Liverpool more like this
77795
unstar this property registered interest false more like this
star this property date less than 2014-07-14more like thismore than 2014-07-14
star this property answering body
Department of Health more like this
star this property answering dept id 17 more like this
star this property answering dept short name Health more like this
star this property answering dept sort name Health more like this
unstar this property hansard heading In Vitro Fertilisation remove filter
star this property house id 2 more like this
star this property legislature
25277
star this property pref label House of Lords more like this
star this property question text To ask Her Majesty’s Government, further to the Written Answers by Earl Howe on 29 August 2013 (WA 315–16) and 24 January 2014 (WA 170–71), what progress the Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority (HFEA) has made over the past year in implementing its action plan in response to the McCracken Report recommendations; what were the detailed policy outcomes of discussions between the Executive and Authority members described in paragraph 6.18 of the Minutes of the HFEA’s meeting on 11 September 2013; and what specific changes the HFEA has introduced to mitigate the risks of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome in accordance with Recommendations 10 and 11 of the McCracken Report and in the light of paragraphs 4.40 and 4.44 therein. more like this
star this property tabling member printed
Lord Alton of Liverpool more like this
star this property uin HL1092 more like this
star this property answer
answer
unstar this property is ministerial correction false more like this
star this property date of answer less than 2014-07-28more like thismore than 2014-07-28
star this property answer text <p>The Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority (HFEA) has advised that progress on implementing the McCracken Report recommendations was last reported to the Authority in March 2014. Papers for that meeting are published on the HFEA’s website at:</p><p> </p><p><a href="http://www.hfea.gov.uk/8782.html" target="_blank">www.hfea.gov.uk/8782.html</a></p><p> </p><p>The HFEA has also advised that in July 2014, the Authority agreed a new strategy for 2014-2017, which sets out its regulatory focus. Also at its meeting in July, Authority members agreed to give consideration to the collection of additional data when a case of Ovarian Hyperstimulation Syndrome is reported. The HFEA will take expert scientific and medical advice on whether such data collection would be of value and on the feasibility of collecting reliable information. The papers for the July 2014 meeting are published on the HFEA’s website at:</p><p> </p><p>www.hfea.gov.uk/Authority-July-2014.html</p><p> </p> more like this
star this property answering member printed Earl Howe more like this
star this property question first answered
less than 2014-07-28T16:36:37.2546736Zmore like thismore than 2014-07-28T16:36:37.2546736Z
star this property answering member
2000
star this property label Biography information for Earl Howe more like this
star this property tabling member
738
unstar this property label Biography information for Lord Alton of Liverpool more like this
89919
unstar this property registered interest false more like this
star this property date less than 2014-09-01more like thismore than 2014-09-01
star this property answering body
Department of Health more like this
star this property answering dept id 17 more like this
star this property answering dept short name Health more like this
star this property answering dept sort name Health more like this
unstar this property hansard heading In Vitro Fertilisation remove filter
star this property house id 2 more like this
star this property legislature
25277
star this property pref label House of Lords more like this
star this property question text To ask Her Majesty’s Government, further to the Written Answer by Earl Howe on 24 July (HL1011), what is the proposed timetable of steps in deciding when mitochondrial donation should be offered in treatment; and what impact each of the separate experiments recommended by the Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority’s Expert Panel will have on that timetable. more like this
star this property tabling member printed
Lord Alton of Liverpool more like this
star this property uin HL1761 more like this
star this property answer
answer
unstar this property is ministerial correction false more like this
star this property date of answer less than 2014-09-15more like thismore than 2014-09-15
star this property answer text <p>The Government has decided to proceed with putting regulations before Parliament, subject to giving further consideration to the Expert Panel’s recommendations, refining the draft regulations to take account of changes identified during the consultation, and discussion with the Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority about an appropriate approval process. The Government will consider the timing of the regulations in the light of these actions. We aim to provide an update about this soon.</p><p> </p> more like this
star this property answering member printed Earl Howe more like this
star this property question first answered
less than 2014-09-15T11:19:57.6403493Zmore like thismore than 2014-09-15T11:19:57.6403493Z
star this property answering member
2000
star this property label Biography information for Earl Howe more like this
star this property tabling member
738
unstar this property label Biography information for Lord Alton of Liverpool more like this
92401
unstar this property registered interest false more like this
star this property date less than 2014-10-06more like thismore than 2014-10-06
star this property answering body
Department of Health more like this
star this property answering dept id 17 more like this
star this property answering dept short name Health more like this
star this property answering dept sort name Health more like this
unstar this property hansard heading In Vitro Fertilisation remove filter
star this property house id 2 more like this
star this property legislature
25277
star this property pref label House of Lords more like this
star this property question text To ask Her Majesty’s Government what assessment they have made of the role played by mitochondria in the development of an organism; and what they consider to be the implications of that assessment for mitochondrial replacement techniques. more like this
star this property tabling member printed
Lord Alton of Liverpool more like this
star this property uin HL1963 more like this
star this property answer
answer
unstar this property is ministerial correction false more like this
star this property date of answer less than 2014-10-16more like thismore than 2014-10-16
star this property answer text <p>As the noble Lord is aware, the Government commissioned the Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority (HFEA) to convene an Expert Panel to review the science related to mitochondrial donation and the proposed donation techniques. The Panel produced reports on this in April 2011, March 2013 and June 2014. A description of the role of mitochondria can be found at paragraph 2.1 of the Expert Panel’s April 2011 scientific report. This can be found on the HFEA’s website at:</p><p> </p><p> </p><p> </p><p>www.hfea.gov.uk/6372.html</p><p> </p><p> </p><p> </p><p>The latest assessment of mitochondrial replacement techniques, carried out earlier this year by the Expert Panel, can be found at:</p><p> </p><p> </p><p> </p><p>www.hfea.gov.uk/8807.html</p><p> </p> more like this
star this property answering member printed Earl Howe more like this
star this property question first answered
less than 2014-10-16T15:29:13.4944279Zmore like thismore than 2014-10-16T15:29:13.4944279Z
star this property answering member
2000
star this property label Biography information for Earl Howe more like this
star this property tabling member
738
unstar this property label Biography information for Lord Alton of Liverpool more like this
92400
unstar this property registered interest false more like this
star this property date less than 2014-10-06more like thismore than 2014-10-06
star this property answering body
Department of Health more like this
star this property answering dept id 17 more like this
star this property answering dept short name Health more like this
star this property answering dept sort name Health more like this
unstar this property hansard heading In Vitro Fertilisation remove filter
star this property house id 2 more like this
star this property legislature
25277
star this property pref label House of Lords more like this
star this property question text To ask Her Majesty’s Government what assessment they have made of the risks of clinical trials of mitochondrial replacement therapy; and what safeguards will be put in place in such trials. more like this
star this property tabling member printed
Lord Alton of Liverpool more like this
star this property uin HL1962 more like this
star this property answer
answer
unstar this property is ministerial correction false more like this
star this property date of answer less than 2014-10-20more like thismore than 2014-10-20
star this property answer text <p>The safety and efficacy of two mitochondrial donation techniques proposed for clinical use, Maternal Spindle Transfer and Pronuclear Transfer, have been the subject of three scientific reviews carried out by an Expert Panel convened by the Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority (HFEA). The Panel reported in April 2011, March 2013 and June 2014.</p><p> </p><p> </p><p> </p><p>Any regulations that would allow mitochondrial donation would also bring into place important safeguards through the HFEA’s licencing procedures. For a licence to be issued to a provider of mitochondrial donation they would first have to demonstrate that they could carry out the procedure safely and effectively.</p><p> </p> more like this
star this property answering member printed Earl Howe more like this
star this property question first answered
less than 2014-10-20T17:02:15.8144279Zmore like thismore than 2014-10-20T17:02:15.8144279Z
star this property answering member
2000
star this property label Biography information for Earl Howe more like this
star this property tabling member
738
unstar this property label Biography information for Lord Alton of Liverpool more like this
100550
unstar this property registered interest false more like this
star this property date less than 2014-10-22more like thismore than 2014-10-22
star this property answering body
Department of Health more like this
star this property answering dept id 17 more like this
star this property answering dept short name Health more like this
star this property answering dept sort name Health more like this
unstar this property hansard heading In Vitro Fertilisation remove filter
star this property house id 2 more like this
star this property legislature
25277
star this property pref label House of Lords more like this
star this property question text To ask Her Majesty’s Government, further to the Written Answers by Lord Darzi of Denham on 22 July 2008 (HL4926 and HL4927) and by Earl Howe on 9 July 2012 (HL1211), of how many cycles the Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority are aware in which fresh embryo transfers took place after 15 or more eggs were collected over each of the past ten years. more like this
star this property tabling member printed
Lord Alton of Liverpool more like this
star this property uin HL2287 more like this
star this property answer
answer
unstar this property is ministerial correction false more like this
star this property date of answer less than 2014-10-29more like thismore than 2014-10-29
star this property answer text <p>The number of treatment cycles in which fresh embryo transfers took place after 15 or more eggs were collected, in each of the last 10 years, is shown in the following table:</p><p> </p><p> </p><p> </p><table><tbody><tr><td><p>Years</p></td><td><p>Cycles in which fresh embryo transfers took place after 15 or more eggs were collected</p></td></tr><tr><td><p>2004</p></td><td><p>5602</p></td></tr><tr><td><p>2005</p></td><td><p>5737</p></td></tr><tr><td><p>2006</p></td><td><p>5843</p></td></tr><tr><td><p>2007</p></td><td><p>6345</p></td></tr><tr><td><p>2008</p></td><td><p>6589</p></td></tr><tr><td><p>2009</p></td><td><p>7344</p></td></tr><tr><td><p>2010</p></td><td><p>7801</p></td></tr><tr><td><p>2011</p></td><td><p>8195</p></td></tr><tr><td><p>2012</p></td><td><p>8200</p></td></tr><tr><td><p>2013(1)</p></td><td><p>8128</p></td></tr></tbody></table><p> </p><p>Source: The Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority</p><p> </p><p> </p><p> </p><p>(1) 2013 is the most recent year for which information is available.</p><p> </p>
star this property answering member printed Earl Howe more like this
star this property question first answered
less than 2014-10-29T12:25:39.9703616Zmore like thismore than 2014-10-29T12:25:39.9703616Z
star this property answering member
2000
star this property label Biography information for Earl Howe more like this
star this property tabling member
738
unstar this property label Biography information for Lord Alton of Liverpool more like this
106170
unstar this property registered interest false more like this
star this property date less than 2014-11-04more like thismore than 2014-11-04
star this property answering body
Department of Health more like this
star this property answering dept id 17 more like this
star this property answering dept short name Health more like this
star this property answering dept sort name Health more like this
unstar this property hansard heading In Vitro Fertilisation remove filter
star this property house id 2 more like this
star this property legislature
25277
star this property pref label House of Lords more like this
star this property question text To ask Her Majesty’s Government, further to the remarks by the Parliamentary Under-Secretary of State for Public Health, Jane Ellison, on 1 September (HC Deb, cols 119–122), how many of the mitochondrial diseases listed in Annex D of the consultation document entitled "Mitochondrial Donation" are included in the Human DNA Polymerase Gamma Mutation Database maintained by the National Institutes of Health in the USA; and what assessment they have made of the causal relationship between mutations affecting DNA Polymerase Gamma and disease-associated mitochondrial DNA mutations. more like this
star this property tabling member printed
Lord Alton of Liverpool more like this
star this property uin HL2642 more like this
star this property answer
answer
unstar this property is ministerial correction false more like this
star this property date of answer less than 2014-11-17more like thismore than 2014-11-17
star this property answer text <p>The mitochondrial diseases listed in Annex D of the “<em>Mitochondrial Donation</em>” consultation document are diseases caused by an inherited mutation in mitochondrial DNA that results in faulty mitochondria. In contrast, the mitochondrial diseases listed in the Human DNA Polymerase Gamma Mutation Database are secondary disorders whereby faulty mitochondria arise from a nuclear gene defect. As such the primary mitochondrial DNA diseases listed in Annex D are distinct from those diseases listed in the Human DNA Polymerase Gamma Database, caused by a nuclear gene mutation.</p><p> </p><p> </p><p> </p><p>The proposed mitochondrial donation techniques would only be used for patients that have inherited mitochondrial DNA mutations and could not be used for those diseases in which faulty mitochondria arise from a nuclear gene mutation, as this mutation would still be inherited by the resulting child from the parents nuclear DNA.</p><p> </p> more like this
star this property answering member printed Earl Howe more like this
star this property question first answered
less than 2014-11-17T12:09:54.457Zmore like thismore than 2014-11-17T12:09:54.457Z
star this property answering member
2000
star this property label Biography information for Earl Howe more like this
star this property tabling member
738
unstar this property label Biography information for Lord Alton of Liverpool more like this
106172
unstar this property registered interest false more like this
star this property date less than 2014-11-04more like thismore than 2014-11-04
star this property answering body
Department of Health more like this
star this property answering dept id 17 more like this
star this property answering dept short name Health more like this
star this property answering dept sort name Health more like this
unstar this property hansard heading In Vitro Fertilisation remove filter
star this property house id 2 more like this
star this property legislature
25277
star this property pref label House of Lords more like this
star this property question text To ask Her Majesty’s Government, further to the Written Answer by Earl Howe on 23 January 2013 (HL4388), whether the Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority still considers that multiple pregnancy poses "the single greatest health risk associated with fertility treatment"; what records they hold on foetal reduction in the first trimester and early in the second trimester; what assessment they have made of the impact of such procedures on the incidence of complications otherwise associated with multiple pregnancy; and what was the average mortality rate of (1) singleton, (2) twin, and (3) triplet, pregnancies in the United Kingdom over each year of the past decade for which records are available. more like this
star this property tabling member printed
Lord Alton of Liverpool more like this
star this property uin HL2643 more like this
star this property answer
answer
unstar this property is ministerial correction false more like this
star this property date of answer less than 2014-11-17more like thismore than 2014-11-17
star this property answer text <p>The Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority (HFEA) has advised that it and all of the relevant professional bodies support the <em>One at a time</em> initiative, which aims to reduce the incidence of multiple births following in-vitro fertilisation (IVF). The consensus statement signed in 2011 states that “Multiple births is the single biggest risk to the health and welfare of children born following fertility treatment”:</p><p> </p><p> </p><p> </p><p><a href="http://www.oneatatime.org.uk/images/2011-05_Multiple_Births_Consensus_Statement_-_FINAL.pdf" target="_blank">www.oneatatime.org.uk/images/2011-05_Multiple_Births_Consensus_Statement_-_FINAL.pdf</a></p><p> </p><p> </p><p> </p><p>The HFEA holds records on foetal reductions carried out in the first trimester and early in the second trimester following each cycle of IVF or donor insemination in the UK.</p><p> </p><p> </p><p> </p><p>When developing its policy on multiple births the HFEA commissioned an Expert Group on Multiple Births after IVF, which concluded that the prevention of multiple pregnancies through single embryo transfer should be preferred to multifetal pregnancy reduction.</p><p> </p><p><strong> </strong></p><p> </p><p>Information on average mortality rates for singleton, twin and triplet pregnancies is not collected centrally. The information that is available is shown in the following table.</p><p> </p><p> </p><p> </p><p> </p><p> </p><p><strong> </strong></p><p> </p><table><tbody><tr><td colspan="13"><p> </p><p> </p><p>Stillbirths and linked infant deaths rates: babies born in each year 2002 to 2011, plurality,</p><p>England and Wales<sup> 1,2,3,4</sup></p></td></tr><tr><td> </td><td> </td><td> </td><td> </td><td> </td><td> </td><td> </td><td> </td><td> </td><td> </td><td> </td><td> </td><td> </td></tr><tr><td><p> </p></td><td colspan="3"><p>Stillbirth</p></td><td><p> </p></td><td colspan="3"><p>Infant</p></td><td> </td><td> </td><td> </td><td> </td><td> </td></tr><tr><td><p>Year</p></td><td><p>Singletons</p></td><td><p>Twins</p></td><td><p>Triplets</p></td><td><p> </p></td><td><p>Singletons</p></td><td><p>Twins</p></td><td><p>Triplets</p></td><td> </td><td> </td><td> </td><td> </td><td> </td></tr><tr><td><p>2002</p></td><td><p>5.3</p></td><td><p>15.7</p></td><td><p>44.6</p></td><td> </td><td><p>4.7</p></td><td><p>23.1</p></td><td><p>40.6</p></td><td> </td><td> </td><td> </td><td> </td><td> </td></tr><tr><td><p>2003</p></td><td><p>5.4</p></td><td><p>17.6</p></td><td><p>52.5</p></td><td> </td><td><p>4.7</p></td><td><p>23.5</p></td><td><p>63.7</p></td><td> </td><td> </td><td> </td><td> </td><td> </td></tr><tr><td><p>2004</p></td><td><p>5.4</p></td><td><p>14.8</p></td><td><p>51.8</p></td><td> </td><td><p>4.5</p></td><td><p>21.6</p></td><td><p>61.8</p></td><td> </td><td> </td><td> </td><td> </td><td> </td></tr><tr><td><p>2005</p></td><td><p>5.1</p></td><td><p>13.2</p></td><td><p>29.7</p></td><td><p>u</p></td><td><p>4.4</p></td><td><p>23.5</p></td><td><p>54.1</p></td><td> </td><td> </td><td> </td><td> </td><td> </td></tr><tr><td><p>2006</p></td><td><p>5.1</p></td><td><p>11.8</p></td><td><p>24.2</p></td><td><p>u</p></td><td><p>4.4</p></td><td><p>21.7</p></td><td><p>67.0</p></td><td> </td><td> </td><td> </td><td> </td><td> </td></tr><tr><td><p>2007</p></td><td><p>5.0</p></td><td><p>11.2</p></td><td><p>19.7</p></td><td><p>u</p></td><td><p>4.2</p></td><td><p>19.9</p></td><td><p>50.3</p></td><td> </td><td> </td><td> </td><td> </td><td> </td></tr><tr><td><p>2008</p></td><td><p>4.9</p></td><td><p>11.6</p></td><td><p>28.7</p></td><td><p>u</p></td><td><p>4.1</p></td><td><p>20.0</p></td><td><p>55.2</p></td><td> </td><td> </td><td> </td><td> </td><td> </td></tr><tr><td><p>2009</p></td><td><p>4.9</p></td><td><p>12.2</p></td><td><p>31.5</p></td><td><p>u</p></td><td><p>4.0</p></td><td><p>20.1</p></td><td><p>34.9</p></td><td><p>u</p></td><td> </td><td> </td><td> </td><td> </td></tr><tr><td><p>2010</p></td><td><p>4.9</p></td><td><p>11.4</p></td><td><p>15.8</p></td><td><p>u</p></td><td><p>3.8</p></td><td><p>18.4</p></td><td><p>62.1</p></td><td> </td><td> </td><td> </td><td> </td><td> </td></tr><tr><td><p>2011</p></td><td><p>5.0</p></td><td><p>10.9</p></td><td><p>15.5</p></td><td><p>u</p></td><td><p>3.7</p></td><td><p>18.8</p></td><td><p>21.7</p></td><td><p>u</p></td><td> </td><td> </td><td> </td><td> </td></tr><tr><td colspan="9"><p> </p><p><em> </em></p><p><em>Notes:</em></p><p> </p><p>1 Stillbirths per 1,000 live births and stillbirths. Infant deaths per 1,000 live births.</p></td><td> </td><td> </td><td> </td><td> </td></tr><tr><td colspan="4"><p>2 Excludes babies born to non-residents.</p></td><td> </td><td> </td><td> </td><td> </td><td> </td><td> </td><td> </td><td> </td><td> </td></tr><tr><td colspan="12" rowspan="2"><p>3 Rates based on between 3 and 19 deaths (inclusive) are distinguished by 'u' as a warning that their reliability may be affected by the small number of events.</p><p>4 Information is not available for Scotland and Northern Ireland.</p></td><td> </td></tr><tr><td> </td></tr><tr><td colspan="4"><p><em> </em></p><p><em>Source:</em> Office for National Statistics</p></td><td> </td><td> </td><td> </td><td> </td><td> </td><td> </td><td> </td><td> </td><td> </td></tr></tbody></table><p> </p>
star this property answering member printed Earl Howe more like this
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2000
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